The rituals based on the maṇḍala involve the visualisation of a configuration of deities. Such practices are generally based on tantric teachings. The practitioner first cultivates the awareness of the state of emptiness. Then, he or she visualizes the deity or assembly of deities rising out of the state of emptiness. This is followed by the visualisation and rituals of offering, prostration and confessions During the main stage, the practitioner visualizes mantras circumbuting at the heart of the deity and rays emitting out and dissolving into the deity. This is an elaborate meditation practice with the aid of many visualisations and monastic music.